New Committee members wanted
LIKE everyone else, I have a busy life but I do think it is important to take time out to contribute and to meet old friends. The Annual General Meeting is looming up and Ted Watkins and Alice Waddacor will be standing down. The Waddacors have helped the Association for a long period of time as has Ted.
They have done a tremendous job over the years and it is time for someone else to step in. The Association will be having its AGM on the 28th February at Kaselbets, Scarborough Beach Road at 6pm. Please if anyone is interested in joining the committee, please contact Doug Capper on 3074790.
New committee meetings will be held the first Tuesday of each month at the Commonwealth Club, near the Subiaco Oval. Some of the activities initially planned for 1997 include a monthly pub night, BBQs, winter dinners, quiz nights and an Anzac breakfast BBQ.
Attempts have been made in the past to have regular get togethers. Who remembers where they spent Friday evenings back in Rhodesia days. I personally haunted the Ambassador with the likes of Ian Berry.
Well, the Association is trialling a Friday get together, the first Friday of each month at the Commonwealth Club. Everyone is welcome. Those who do use the train should note there is a stop at East Leederville, close to the club.
Please note that all subscriptions are now due - the new rates are shown on page 26.
Our advertisers help us keep costs down - Please support them and if you or anyone you know needs some advertising, please contact Doug Capper.
I am pleased to advise that after our last edition, $185 has been raised for Jody Garner.
The Bundu Times is for all of us and sourcing material of a local interest does get difficult. I would really appreciate if readers do contribute to "Our Kind of People" or if they just have some local news, they send me some copy.
Isn't it a great pleasure to see Zimbabwe do so well in the cricket against England. See you all at the AGM
CLEM BARRATT, EDITOR
Social calendarTuesday 4th February COMMITTEE MEETING 5.30pm Venue: Commonwealth Club Subiaco, Perth Wednesday 12th February COFFEE MORNING 10am Details: Contact Helen Hamley on 4576970 or Yvonne Beesley on 457404 Thursday 20th February M'DALAS INDABA: 9.30am - 11.30am Venue:Auditorium, 2nd Floor, NOTE WELL CHANGE Venue:Citiplace Community Centre, Railway Station Perth. Contact Douglas Lyon on 2953490. All welcome Friday 28th February ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING Venue: Kasalbets Scarborough Beach Road 6pm on Tuesday 4th March COMMITTEE MEETING 5.30pm Venue: Commonwealth Club Subiaco, Perth Friday 7th March PUB NIGHT Commonwealth Club Subiaco 5.30pm Wednesday 12th March COFFEE MORNING 10am Details: Contact Yvonne Beesley on 4574047 Thursday 13th March M'dalas coach & cruise outing. Contact Douglas Lyon for details Thursday 20th March M'DALAS INDABA: 9.30am - 11.30am NOTE WELL CHANGE Venue: Citiplace Community Centre, Railway Station Perth. Contact Douglas Lyon on 2953490. All welcomeDonations
Ronald & Janet Belstead of Gosnells
Charles & Rose Murray of Balcatta
John & Karin Cawson
Rob & Wendy Allart
Charles Smith, ex-Durban
Alan Place ex-Bulawayo
M'dalas ReportGolf a treat with
Doug and Pete!
ON November 7th, an outing to the Botanic Golf Gardens was supported by 20 of our members.
It was a very pleasant day in beautiful surroundings, and the golf competition was well organised by Doug Learmonth and Peter Dean.
There were several gleeful shouts of -Hole in one!+ and also the frustration of having to pick up the ball after hitting the maximum of seven strokes.
One of the highlights in the M+dalas Calendar is the Christmas Lunch and this year appeared to be as enjoyable as ever.
Wentworth Plaza Hotel provided an excellent meal and had also marked underneath one chair with a green sticker.
After much upending of chairs the winner turned out to be Ron Dickinson, so he and Joan will have the pleasure of dinner for two at a popular city restaurant - by courtesy of Wentworth Plaza.
The guest of honour for the day was our retiring Treasurer Peggy Gibb who has carried out her duties meticulously since the inception of the M+dalas some 16 years ago.
After paying tribute to Peggy+s contribution over the years the Chairman presented her with a gift token of appreciation from the members.
Various prizes were then drawn - the most sought-after being a bottle of Drambuie kindly donated by Sonny Brooks and won by Marion Dean, who incidentally has volunteered to take over the duties of Treasurer from Peggy Gibb.
Members should now be all aware that our meetings are being held at Citiplace Community Centre at the Railway Station.
The first meeting at the new venue was held on January 16th from 9.30 - 11.30 am. Members attending numbered 48 plus six visitors.
The Chairman has booked a coach and cruise outing on the Swan River on March 13th at a cost of $24 per person. The Roberts +Once in a lifetime+ coach leaves the Coach Bay in Wellington Street at 9.00 am proceeding to Fremantle.
A light lunch will be served on board the boat as we cruise up the river to Perth. We then rejoin our coach for an afternoon mystery tour and return to our pick up point at about 4 pm. Those who intend taking part in this outing must pay at our February meeting or send a cheque to the Chairman.
It is hoped that there will be a good turnout of M+dalas at the Rhodesian Association AGM on Februaly 28th.
Further details are listed elsewhere in this issue of BT.
Andrew RaesidePLEASE find enclosed my cheque for $15, it is with deep sadness I inform you of the death of my husband Andrew, he was on the Rhodesian/Zimbabwe Railways for 30 years as a locomotive driver. He started on the Northern Rhodesian section and retired on the Bulawayo to Mafeking section in 1985. He died at the age of 66 of brain cancer in the Mount Gambier Hospital on the 7th December 1996.
My best wishes to all the staff of the Bundu Times for Xmas and the coming year 1997.
We all offer you our condolences on the loss of your husband.
Christmas BBQ a bright and breezy affairTHE Xmas BBQ on Sunday 8th December at McCallum Park has come and gone. More than 60 Rhodesians attended and again enjoyed a very pleasant day.
McCallum Park is renowned for its scenic view of the river and city and there was a hive of activity both on the river and the bike path.
The BBQ with free boerewors supplied by our regular advertisers Conways & Warwick Grove Meats went down a treat.
Members made good use of the Rhodesian Association BBQ even though the breeze was a bit daunting!
The highlight of the day was without doubt the arrival of a jolly Father Christmas with his - ho ho ho - much to the delight of the children.
Presents and lollies were distributed after each child sat on Father Christmas's knee, even the odd adult got a christmas surprise.
After seeing the children's faces, especially Daniel Goodin, waving goodbye to Santa and thanking him very much for his present it made all this festivity worthwhile.
A raffle was drawn and three worthy prizes were distributed: a hamper from the Association, a bottle of whiskey generously donated by the Chairman and an African artifact kindly donated by John Durbin.
Finally donations were sought to aid the plight of Jody Garner and over $160 was raised. All in all this regular Christmas BBQ in the park was a high success.
IS THERE anyone who would like to supplement a dinner and tea service which she/he/they might have brought out to Australia when leaving Zimbabwe? We have some Rhodesian Wilsgrove pottery to give away.
3 bread plates 1 dinner plate 3 cups 5 saucers 1 fruit bowl 2 dessert plates 1 sugar bowl 1 mustard bowl 3 egg cups 2 salt & pepper shakersPottery in darker shade of honey.
Please phone Joyce de Salis,
(09) 448 5639
1 kg minced mutton or beef (or left over, cold roast meat) 2 onions 1 slice of white bread 250 ml (1 c) milk 2 eggs 12,5 ml (1 T) curry powder 18,5 ml (1.5 T) sugar 10 ml (2 T) salt and 2,5 ml(0.5 t) pepper 6 ml (0.5 T) turmeric 25 ml (2 T) vinegar or juice of 1 lemon 6 almonds, quartered 125 ml (0.5 C) seeded raisins 4 lemons or bay leaves, or grated rind of 1 lemon 37,5 ml (3 T) chutney
- Remove the dry outer skins of the onions, slice onions thinly and simmer in very little boiling water in a saucepan for 5 minutes or until they appear swollen and glassy. Now chop the onions finely and brown slightly in hot fat.
- Soak the bread in the milk and then squeeze out the milk again. Crumb the bread.
- Combine all the ingredients except 1 egg, milk and the lemon leaves.
- Place the mixture in a greased, fireproof baking dish. Roll up the leaves and insert them into the meat in an upright position.
- Bake in a moderate oven at 180 C for 1.5 hours if uncooked meat is used and 45 minutes if cooked meat is used.
- Beat the remaining egg with 125 ml (1/2cup) milk and pour this over the meat half an hour before taking it out of the oven.
- Serve with boiled rice and chutney.
SnippetsTOXIC waste flowing from water purification works near Harare has poisoned fish in Lake Manyane, one of four lakes supplying the capital with drinking water. A spokesman said toxic sludge containing aluminium sulphate, a purification agent, had washed into the lake after Lake Chivero (McIllwaine) overflowed.
THE Zimbabwe Government has admitted it had blundered in the way it handled the country's biggest strike by tens of thousands of State employees late last year. Florence Chitauro, Public Service and Labour minister, said the Government lacked negotiating skills. l
SOUTH Africa's death toll from traffic accidents over the Christmas-New Year holiday period topped nearly 1200. Head-on collisions, overturned vehicles and collisions with pedestrians made up the bulk of the fatalities
ZIMBABWE is Africa's third biggest gold producer behind South Africa and Ghana.
THE Ndola-based International Red Locust Control Organisation and the Zambian Ministry of Agriculture have warned of a looming outbreak of red locusts in Zambia.
LIONS attacked and ate a mother and child who tried to enter South Africa illegally from Mozambique by crossing through the Kruger National Park.
ZAIRIAN rebels have captured President Mobutu Sese Seko's personal gold mine.
ZIMBABWEAN Finance Minister Herbert Murerwa says the government's biggest challenges in 1997 are reducing the high unemployment rate, indigenisation of the economy and redressing a land imbalance. l
FOUR thousand Africans have been duped into buying on land earmarked for grazing in the Chiremba-Epworth area south-east of Harare. They have called for urgent government intervention.
THE death rate in Zimbabwe jumped by nearly 20 percent in the first 11 months of last year because of AIDS, shortages of funds for health services and a strike by doctors and nurses, the state Central Statistical Office says. More than 94,300 Zimbabweans died between January and Dec. 7, up from 71,758 in the same period last year. Harare recorded 17,352 deaths among its 1.4 million people, compared to 15,745 in 1994.
ZIMBABWE'S Supreme Court has ordered the Government to grant Enhanced Communications Network, or any other applicant, a cellular phone licence by the end of February.
MEMBERS of parliament have called on the Government to make Zimbabwe's main indigenous languages, Shona and Sindebele, compulsory in both primary and secondary education.
TRAFFIC at Beit Bridge border post between South Africa and Zimbabwe increased by 450,000 people last year, the South African Department of Home Affairs has reported. Some two million travellers went through the post last year, 234,000 of them in December. More than 12,500 people crossed the border on December 21.
ZIMBABWE will split its railway up this year, according to news agency reports. Two new companies, both owned by the Government, will be created in a bid to increase efficiency, they said.
It would also enable other players, who have indicated an interest in running private safari trains, to join the field while increasing the parastatal's revenue and reducing its burden.
Steam locomotives would also be phased out.
FORTY-EIGHT Zimbabweans have been killed by lightning since the start of the rainy season in November, according to police.
AT LEAST 22 people were killed and more than 200 injured in road accidents in Zimbabwe on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day, police said.
ZIMBABWE'S farm-based economy is expected to grow by up to seven percent in 1997 and economists say it could expand even more if a protracted privatisation programme finally comes on stream.
Wet behind the ears, or just plain greedy?This report, published in The Herald recently should qualify for Ripley's "Believe It Or Not". It would be funny, if it weren't so serious. THE Department of Meteorological Services has barred all newspapers, including The Herald, from publishing weekly rainfall figures from its stations, saying it will give the figures only to individuals, and even they have to pay about $Z600 a season.
So far just 40 people have signed on. Even if The Herald paid for the service, it has been told that it would have to seek permission to publish the data, and it has been told permission would not be granted. The other million or so readers of The Herald and its Bulawayo sister, The Chronicle, who used to find out every Thursday how much rain had fallen in their area during the past week and so far in the season, can now go without these figures. So gardeners, communal farmers and many other people who need the information desperately but can not afford the money -- or do not even have decent postal delivery, telephones, faxes or computers to receive the information, have to go without for the sake of the money from the 40.
The Met Office has been budgeted $Z17 255 000 from the taxpayer this financial year, a significant in crease on last year once a cut in its development budget is taken into account. The 40 subscribers, the only people entitled to the basic rainfall figures, will pay a total of just over $Z40 000, less than one quarter of one percent of what the taxpayers put in. The taxpayers, however, will not get the data for their money. Explaining the new move, which was implemented this week without any notice whatsoever, the director of Meteorological Services, Dr Marufu Zinyowera, said his department was implementing cost-cutting measures since it now has to buy stationery and meet some operational costs on its own.
Asked if The Herald could therefore buy the rainfall table each week, Dr Zinyowera said it could. But he warned that he would not grant permission for this to be published in a newspaper since other potential subscribers would not then be interested.
In his budget for 1996-1997, all salaries and allowances of Met Office staff are met by the State. In addition there is provision of $Z4.8 million, up on the $Z4.28 million spent last year, for "incidental expenses" and $1 million for transport and subsistence, down slightly on the $Z1.16 million spent last year. The incidental expenses budget is for items such as stationery and operational expenses. The Met Office was prepared to give The Herald a map each week showing the bands in which rainfall fell in parts of the country, but was unwilling to say how much actually fell.
In order to provide a replacement service to its readers The Herald would like those, including schools who keep detailed records of rainfall in their area using their own gauge, and who are willing to share regular weekly totals from last week, to contact the news desk as soon as possible so arrangements can be worked out. These figures will be published on Thursdays with historical data and the maps still offered by the Met Office.
Atherton's Incompetents savaged by UK PressANY RHODESIAN who is even only slightly interested in cricket will now know of England+s humiliating defeat at the hands of Zimbabwe.
The record books will show the country which invented the game went down 2-0 to a bunch of part-timers headed in the second test by chicken farmer Eddo Brandes and lost 2 (or was it three?) one-dayers into the bargain.
As usual, the British press rallied round their boys but only to savage them. Not one went in to bat for Atherton's Incompetents.
The tabloid daily The Sun ran a six-page "disaster special" featuring a damning interview with 19th century cricketing hero W.G. Grace -- carried out through a medium.
"Laughter and ridicule are the only means of preserving sanity when talking about the England cricket team," said the Sun, which printed a photo of a sheep bearing Atherton's face.
The Daily Telegraph likened the loss to a public flogging, while the Daily Mirror said: "Our reputation as a cricketing nation has been shot to pieces in Zimbabwe. Now we are heading for New Zealand like lambs to the slaughter. The nation that invented cricket has been well and truly plucked," "
The Daily Express delivered the last rites, saying: "English cricket collapsed and died yesterday, aged 120. As is usual with such tragedies abroad, a post-mortem will be held, but the cause of death is understood to be simple: humiliation.
The Independent in a front page article said:"The England cricket team were laid low yesterday by a chicken farmer from Zimbabwe in what must rank as one of the nation's most humiliating defeats of all time."
Former test captain Bob Willis described England on television as "an embarrassment," but Zimbabwe captain Alistair Campbell was understandably jubilant at his side's triumph.
Good rains filling damsZIMBABWE'S dams are filling up fast due to a continuing wet spell, the department of agricultural technical extension and technical services says in its latest report.
It said both medium and large dams in the Midlands were 50 to 70-percent full, while most rivers were also flowing and boreholes yielding.
Meanwhile, red locust swarms which attacked most of Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique and South Africa were still a potential threat to crop this year especially after the first rains.
The SADC early warning unit has predicted a regional maize surplus of 1,87 million tons as assessed in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia and for the first time in many years, Swaziland.
THE AUSTRALIA - SOUTHERN AFRICA CONNECTIONTHE Australia - Southern Africa connection will be an annual Directory, commencing early 1997 containing the following:
For further details please contact :
- Details of businesses throughout Australia that are either owned, or employ, Southern Africans, or have significant contact with Southern Africa.
- An Import/Export section showing Australian and Southern African businesses currently involved in, or keen to become involved in, trade between the two regions.
- Articles of interest to potential emigrants from Southern Africa
The Australia - Southern Africa Connection
PO Box 4019,
Zimbabwe inflation down slightlyZIMBABWE'S annualised inflation rate fell slightly to 20.2 percent in October against all market expectations of a substantial rise to over 22 percent following the recent spate of price rises, according to news reports there.
The decline in inflation, from 20.6 percent in September was partly due to the fall in food prices, which fell by 1.4 percent between September and October. During the height of the 1991/92 and 1993/94 droughts, food prices shot up as a result of massive crop failures, which saw inflation soar to record levels of over 40 percent.
But analysts said the October inflation figure probably did not include the fuel price increases of over six percent, and could therefore be misleading.
"It is a bit surprising that after predictions of a rise, inflation actually went down. One has the feeling that some indicators are not being included when the inflation figure is being calculated," an economist said.
Analysts said there were fears inflation could rise again early this year, mainly because of expected heavy borrowing by government as it battles to finance recurrent expenditure and meet the huge civil service salary bill.
Apart from finding over $Z5-billion to finance its budget deficit, government has to source an additional $Z1.95-billion to meet the extra 20 percent salary hike given to civil servants and annual bonuses.
That's disgraceful!A multi-million dollar double storey mansion with 30 rooms being built by the government for Robert Mugabe's new young wife, Grace, has gobbled up the cash in a State home-ownership scheme meant to benefit low and middle-income government workers, accordiong to news reports.
The weekly Zimbabwe Independent said cash in the scheme had been used to build the 31-year-old first lady's home on five hectares in the mink-and-manure Borrowdale area of Harare.
It had forced the cancellation of the building of about 100 low-cost homes in three of the capital's poorer townships.
The paper quoted unidentified sources in the ministry of public construction, which runs the fund, as saying that there was "no other way of raising the money" to pay for the lavish home, which also includes three cottages on the property.
Civil servants using the fund are required to pay 40 percent of the cost, but this requirement "has not been enforced" in the Mugabes' case. Nor had any attempt been made to recoup the money spent on building the house, which consumed 25 percent of $A3.14 million government funds contributed to the fund.
Reports last year said the scheme had run into trouble as funds dried up due to the high rate of defaulting on payments by VIPs, and building supply companies would no longer sell materials to the fund. The new house, one of four large residences she has access to in and near Harare, has drawn widespread criticism and is seen as evidence of a new extravagent lifestyle adopted by the country's formerly austere marxist leader.
l ZIMBABWE Education Minister Edmund Garwe resigned late last year after admitting his daughter leaked examination papers he had taken home. Garwe admitted his 14-year-old daughter removed year-end examination papers from his briefcase after he had taken them to a meeting with government printers to have misprints corrected.
Bargain Benz deal for Mugabe ministersROBERT Mugabe's government has allowed Cabinet ministers to buy their officially allocated Mercedes Benz limousines at bargain prices after replacing them with brand new top-of-the-range vehicles, it was reported in early December.
Over 30 Mercedes Benz cars from the Government's ministerial fleet, between two and five years old and worth at least $A33,000 each, were sold to the ministers who previously used them on official and personal business.
The cars were sold at between $A770 and $A1300, the Financial Gazette newspaper reported.
In contrast, the cheapest car offered in the classified columns of the local press at the time was a fifties-manufactured Morris 1000 for $A1000. The advertisement noted the vehicle "needs attention", a news agency correspondent said.
In place of their former official cars, ministers were allocated new South African-assembled Mercedes Benz 230E class limousines for official duties and personal use. The issue of lavish spending on VIP vehicles raised an uproar in September when it was revealed that Cabinet ministers became the first recipients in the country of the 48 new luxury vehicles that cost taxpayers $A5.1million.
Transport Minister Simon Moyo claimed the official cars ministers were using then had to be push-started. He also claimed the new vehicles were needed for the hosting of the World Solar summit in September, which was attended by only 11 of the 23 heads of state expected.
The newspaper quoted unnamed sources at the government transport pool as saying that the "old" official cars were "in good condition" having always received top priority attention at state workshops.
Some of the ministers took their official vehicles to the workshops for $A2000 engine overhauls at state expense as soon as they heard they could buy their official cars, the Gazette reported.
The government could have raised $A1.4 million if it had sold the cars at market prices, motor industry executives said. Instead, it got $A23,500.
Hookers' cash plea to housewivesHARD-up prostitutes in Zimbabwe have raised their charges by 67 percent and told housewives to give their husbands more money to spend on their services.
"Housewives should sympathise with us and I am appealing to them to urge their husbands to bring more money when they go to beerhalls. "We are not married but we also need to survive and send our children to school," a newspaper quoted a prostitutes' spokeswoman as saying.
The weekly quoted the group, which calls itself the Prostitutes Association of Zimbabwe, as saying men seeking its members' services would now pay $Z50 a night, up from $Z30.
In pursuit of excellency!AIR Zimbabwe lost almost $Z1 million after it flew two empty planes to and from Cyprus for Robert Mugabe's state visit to that country, according to the Independent newspaper in Harare.
Scores of passengers who were scheduled to fly to Nairobi were stranded in Harare because their plane was taken by Mugabe and his delegation to Cyprus, the paper quoted a senior airline official as saying.
They were unavailable for comment but last November a senior official who refused to be named said each time the president travelled, flights were disrupted on Air Zimbabwe which has a shortage, of planes.
The airliner returned to Zimbabwe after dropping Mugabe, his wife Grace and the rest of his entourage in Cyprus because it was needed for international flights, the paper said.
In the past 13 months Mugabe has been abroad more than 20 times.
LIVING in Australia like we do, we tend to forget the day-to-day racial haggling that wore us down "back home" in Zimbabwe. Despite a generation growing up since independence the niggling goes on. l These two newspaper entries, a Comment piece from the Herald and a letter to the Editor of an unnamed newspaper, show nothing has changed, and we should all be grateful that it's only petty politicking we have to contend with these days!
OLD Ian Smith was invited to speak to third year political science and administration students at the University of Zimbabwe this week and, as expected, desperately tried to justify his UDI regime and its racial policies.
What was not expected was the fairly smooth ride he got from students at question time. This, when one thinks about it, is not really the students+ fault.
Most must be around 21 and had not even started school when UDI crashed in total and absolute failure to be followed by a spell of direct British rule and then independence.
Older people have to remember that Ian Smith has already lived almost two years longer in independent Zimbabwe than under his own UDI and that President Mugabe has been the country+s chief executive for longer than Ian Smith spent as Prime Minister, regime leader and the power behind the UDI throne in the dying days of the regime.
So none of those students would have suffered the startling racism of the colonial era, and the UDI period in particular, at first hand.
None of them would have been told they could not go to school because they were black, none have had racial insults hurled at them out of windows of passing cars, none have been barred from hospital because their skin was too dark.
Some had heard of the injustices and degradation, serious and petty, that the regime and its supporters, passive and active, tried to impose. None have experienced hard filthy racism.
In short there is a growing generation gap between those who did suffer and those brought up in freedom.
That gap is in some ways welcome; no one should ever again, anywhere in the world, suffer what blacks of this country went through under Ian Smith.
But that people can act like that, and keep justifying it in old age, has to be known and understood.
Reconciliation does not mean a wiping of memory. It is important that we do remember and try to explain to our children what Zimbabwe was like just 17 years ago.
For unless they understand what true tyranny can be like they might be fated to repeat history. It took the lives of 30 000 people and untold destruction to overthrow the armed racism and tyranny of UDI.
Two Chimurengas were fought; we do not need a third.
Racism was not just a minority seizing the wealth of a country or acting as if they were superior beings. It was people treating other people as less than animals, as just numbers to be exploited.
For Ian Smith to keep justifying that, instead of hiding on his farm in shame, is disgraceful. For students to give him a fairly smooth ride is sad; they have not been taught what life was really like in those days.
But old Smith does have his uses. His pontificating on democracy, and his comparison of the -freedom+ of his regime compared to modern Zimbabwe condemn him out of his own mouth.
Those who spoke against him ended up in jail, or dead. He just wanders around saying what he likes, and the authorities leave him be.
In some ways his speeches are the most effective way of teaching our youth the horror of his regime; his callous disregard of history and his attempts to justify evil give them a hint of what racism actually means.
For he still does not care. He is still not the least bit ashamed. Seeing that coldness of past evil should send a chill down even the hardest spine.
Ungrateful primitivesWITH all the anti-white racist propaganda being put out by the AAG and the government, perhaps you will allow me my two-bits worth of say - may I remind them that when the British came to Rhodesia about one hundred years ago, they found a few hundred thousand very primitive people here whose life expectancy was less than 50 years.
About one child in five survived to the age of five. Their population growth rate was about zero because the only medical facility available to them was the witch doctor. So the white man (the British) exploited them by giving them white man's medicine, hospitals and clinics for free.
Because of their irresponsible breeding habits, there are nearly 12million of them now. They were a very primitive people, 100 percent of who were illiterate - they had no knowledge to teach, so the British exploited them by giving them schools for free - and teaching them all they (whites) knew, to the extent that today they have one of the highest literacy standards on the continent. They were a very primitive people who didn't even have the wheel, never mind an industry or an economy, so the British exploited them by bringing roads, railways, industries, jobs and a standard of living that their grandfathers couldn't even dream about.
The blacks have never been great on the creative, but now that they have been educated and given power they want to steal everything that the white man has built up over the last 100 years.
However the British have had it coming to them since they rejected the advice of their God as given in Deut 7; they have now got to take the consequences as recorded in Deut 7, vs 26 Deut 28; etc -- so God help.
submitted by S. Woolbrough